In order to realize intelligent vehicular transport networks and self driving cars, connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) are required to be able to estimate their position to the nearest centimeter. Traditional positioning in CAVs is realized by using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) such as global positioning system (GPS) or by fusing weighted location parameters from a GNSS with an inertial navigation systems (INSs). In urban environments where Wi-Fi coverage is ubiquitous and GNSS signals experience signal blockage, multipath or non line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation, enterprise or carrier-grade Wi-Fi networks can be opportunistically used for localization or “fused” with GNSS to improve the localization accuracy and precision. While GNSS-free localization systems are in the literature, a survey of vehicle localization from the perspective of a Wi-Fi anchor/infrastructure is limited. Consequently, this review seeks to investigate recent technological advances relating to positioning techniques between an ego vehicle and a vehicular network infrastructure. Also discussed in this paper is an analysis of the location accuracy, complexity and applicability of surveyed literature with respect to intelligent transportation system requirements for CAVs. It is envisaged that hybrid vehicular localization systems will enable pervasive localization services for CAVs as they travel through urban canyons, dense foliage or multi-story car parks.
Bibliographical note2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND
- Intelligent Transportation Systems
- Vehicle-to-vehicle/roadside/Internet communication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Automotive Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering