Influenza vaccine effectiveness in aged individuals: The role played by cell-mediated immunity

P. O. Lang, S. Govind, W. A. Mitchell, N. Kenny, A. Lapenna, D. Pitts, R. Aspinall

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Older adults are particularly vulnerable to influenza virus, which continues to have a considerable impact worldwide. This is partly due to a waning immune system that attenuates the ability to respond to influenza virus and/or influenza vaccination. According to recent immunogenicity and clinical studies it is becoming increasingly clear that components other than humoral-mediated immunity are required to confer long-term protection in this population. While the level of circulating anti-hemagglutinin antibody is the gold standard used to evaluate influenza vaccine efficacy, T-cell responses appear to be a better correlate of influenza vaccine protection in the elderly population. This review gives further considerations to the age-related changes that influence the immune system's capacity to respond to influenza vaccination, focusing mainly on the impact of cell-mediated immunity, which is the component of the immune system most affected by immunosenescence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-238
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Geriatric Medicine
Issue number4
Early online date2 Aug 2010
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Cell-mediated immunity
  • Immunosenescence
  • Older adults
  • Vaccine effectiveness
  • Vaccine response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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