Influence of short-term hyperenergetic, high-fat feeding on appetite, appetite-related hormones, and food reward in healthy men

Alice E. Thackray, Scott A. Willis, David J. Clayton, David R. Broom, Graham Finlayson, Fernanda R. Goltz, Jack A. Sargeant, Rachel M. Woods, David J. Stensel, James A. King

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
    7 Downloads (Pure)


    Short-term overfeeding may provoke compensatory appetite responses to correct the energy surplus. However, the initial time-course of appetite, appetite-related hormone, and reward-related responses to hyperenergetic, high-fat diets (HE-HFD) are poorly characterised. Twelve young healthy men consumed a HE-HFD (+50% energy, 65% fat) or control diet (36% fat) for seven days in a randomised crossover design. Mean appetite perceptions were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after each diet. Fasted appetite perceptions, appetite-related hormones, and reward parameters were measured pre-diet and after 1-, 3-and 7-days of each diet. The HE-HFD induced a pre-to-post diet suppression in mean appetite during the OGTT (all ratings p ≤ 0.058, effect size (d) ≥ 0.31), and reduced the preference for high-fat vs. low-fat foods (main effect diet p = 0.036, d = 0.32). Fasted leptin was higher in the HE-HFD than control diet (main effect diet p < 0.001, d = 0.30), whilst a diet-by-time interaction (p = 0.036) revealed fasted acylated ghrelin was reduced after 1-, 3-and 7-days of the HE-HFD (all p ≤ 0.040, d ≥ 0.50 vs. pre-diet). Appetite perceptions and total peptide YY in the fasted state exhibited similar temporal patterns between the diets (diet-by-time interaction p ≥ 0.077). Seven days of high-fat overfeeding provokes modest compensatory changes in subjective, hormonal, and reward-related appetite parameters.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2635
    Number of pages15
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2020

    Bibliographical note

    This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


    The research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre.


    • appetite
    • food-reward
    • overfeeding
    • high-fat diet
    • energy balance
    • compensation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Food Science
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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