Influence of fuel-borne oxygen on European Stationary Cycle: Diesel engine performance and emissions with a special emphasis on particulate and NO emissions

M.N. Nabi, A. Zare, F.M. Hossain, M.M. Rahman, T.A. Bodisco, Z.D. Ristovski, Richard J. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)


Exploration of sustainable fuels and their influence on reductions in diesel emissions are nowadays a challenge for the engine and fuel researchers. This study investigates the role of fuel-borne oxygen on engine performance and exhaust emissions with a special emphasis on diesel particulate and nitric oxide (NO) emissions. A number of oxygenated-blends were prepared with waste cooking biodiesel as a base oxygenated fuel. Triacetin, a derivative from transesterified biodiesel was chosen for its high oxygen content and superior fuel properties. The experimental campaign was conducted with a 6-cylinder, common rail turbocharged diesel engine equipped with highly precise instruments for nano and other size particles and other emissions. All experiments were performed in accordance with European Stationary Cycle (ESC 13-mode). A commercial diesel was chosen as a reference fuel with 0% oxygen and five other oxygenated blends having a range of 6.02–14.2% oxygen were prepared. The experimental results revealed that the oxygenated blends having higher a percentage of fuel-borne oxygen reduced particulate matter (PM), particle number (PN), unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a significantly low level with a slight penalty of NO emissions. The main target of this study was to effectively utilise triacetin as an additive for waste cooking biodiesel and suppress emissions without deteriorating engine performance. The key finding of this investigation is the significant reductions in both particle mass and number emissions simultaneously without worsening engine performance with triacetin-biodiesel blends. Reductions in both particle mass and number emissions with a cost-effective additive would be a new dimension for the fuel and engine researchers to effectively use triacetin as an emission suppressor in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-198
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Early online date8 Sep 2016
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016



  • Fuel-borne oxygen
  • Engine performance
  • Diesel particles
  • NO emissions

Cite this