Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation kinetics of nanoscale isothermal ω-phase in metastable β-Ti alloy, Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr

Deepak Sharma, David Parfitt, Bo Chen, Bryan Roebuck, Diego Alba Venero, Sitarama Raju Kada, Daniel Fabijanic, Michael E. Fitzpatrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In metastable β-Ti alloys, nanoscale isothermal ω-phase (ω iso) precipitates are regarded as the nucleation sites for the α strengthening phase. Here we investigate the precipitation kinetics of the ω iso precipitates as a function of cooling rate (air cooling and water quenching) after β-solutionising. A combined in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and electrical resistivity measurement approach was used during ageing of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr wt% (Ti-5553) alloy at 300 °C and 325 °C up to 8 h. The SANS modelling was consistent with ellipsoid shaped particles for the ω iso precipitates, for both air-cooled and water-quenched samples. The precipitates attained a maximum size (equatorial diameter) of ∼21 nm and ∼17 nm after 2 h and 4 h of ageing the water-quenched and air-cooled samples respectively. Although the air-cooled samples showed delayed nucleation in comparison to water-quenched sample, the volume fraction became approximately the same (∼11%) after ageing for 8 h. The average value of the activation energy for ω iso nucleation from the β-phase matrix was determined as 122 kJ mol −1 from electrical resistivity data using a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. The hardness increased with ageing time, with water quenching leading to a higher final value of hardness than air cooling.

Original languageEnglish
Article number157822
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Early online date6 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2021


Lloyd’s Register Foundation ( LRF ), UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council , EPSRC Early Career Fellowship Scheme, EP/R043973/1.


  • Electrical resistivity measurements
  • Kinetics
  • Small-angle neutron scattering
  • Titanium alloys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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