New phenomena not previously documented in the available literature have been experimentally observed subsequent to the entry of falling steel spheres into a stratified system of a shallow layer of sunflower oil above a deep pool of water. Further experiments on similar sphere entries into sunflower oil demonstrated that those phenomena arose mainly as a result of the interaction between the surface of the spheres and the sunflower oil. It should be noted that the sunflower oil layer in the aforementioned two-layer system was relatively very thin compared to the dimensions of the spheres. Therefore, the experiments showed the substantial influence both the upper layer liquid and the surface conditions of the solid body could potentially have, on the phenomena and cavity dynamics that arise as a result of solid entries into stratified, two-layer systems of immiscible liquids.
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Tan, B., & Thomas, P. (2018). Influence of an upper layer liquid on the phenomena and cavity formation associated with the entry of solid spheres into a stratified, two-layer system of immiscible liquids. Physics of Fluids, 30(6), 064104-1 - 064104-6. . https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5027814