Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome

Jane Roberts, Hayley Crawford, Elizabeth Will, Abigail Hogan, Samuel McQuillin, Bridgette Tonnsen, Shannon O'Conner, Douglas Roberts, Alexis Brewe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety are three of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Early trajectories of social avoidance have been linked with these psychiatric disorders in previous studies, but it remains unclear how social avoidance differentially predicts comorbid disorders in a high-risk genetic subgroup. Here, we delineate the association between trajectories of social avoidance from infancy and subsequent ASD, ADHD, and anxiety outcomes at preschool in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a well-characterized single-gene disorder highly associated with social avoidance as well as elevated rates of ASD, ADHD, and anxiety.

Method: Males with FXS (n = 78) aged 4–62 months participated in a longitudinal study resulting in 201 assessments. The Social Avoidance Scale (SAS) documented socially avoidant behaviors from infancy in three domains—physical movement, facial expression, and eye contact during both the first minute and the last hour of an interaction. ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptom outcomes at preschool were measured via parent-report questionnaires.

Results: Increased social avoidance across infancy and preschool predicted elevated ASD symptom severity but reduced ADHD and anxiety symptom severity in males with FXS.

Conclusion: ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptoms relate inconsistently to social avoidance behaviors, providing new insight toward the debate of independence or overlap among these disorders in FXS and other disorders (i.e., ASD). The results suggest that the nuanced profile of the developmental and temporal aspects of social avoidance may inform more the accuracy of differential diagnoses of comorbid psychiatric disorders in FXS.
Original languageEnglish
Article number199
Number of pages10
JournalFrontiers in Psychiatry
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2019

Fingerprint

Fragile X Syndrome
Autistic Disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Anxiety
Psychiatry
Avoidance Learning
Facial Expression
Preschool Children
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Longitudinal Studies
Differential Diagnosis
Genes

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2019 Roberts, Crawford, Will, Hogan, McQuillin, Tonnsen, O'Connor, Roberts and Brewe. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Autism
  • FMR1
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Social avoidance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Roberts, J., Crawford, H., Will, E., Hogan, A., McQuillin, S., Tonnsen, B., ... Brewe, A. (2019). Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, [199]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199

Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome. / Roberts, Jane; Crawford, Hayley; Will, Elizabeth; Hogan, Abigail; McQuillin, Samuel; Tonnsen, Bridgette; O'Conner, Shannon; Roberts, Douglas; Brewe, Alexis.

In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol. 10, 199, 07.05.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Roberts, J, Crawford, H, Will, E, Hogan, A, McQuillin, S, Tonnsen, B, O'Conner, S, Roberts, D & Brewe, A 2019, 'Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome' Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 10, 199. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199
Roberts J, Crawford H, Will E, Hogan A, McQuillin S, Tonnsen B et al. Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019 May 7;10. 199. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199
Roberts, Jane ; Crawford, Hayley ; Will, Elizabeth ; Hogan, Abigail ; McQuillin, Samuel ; Tonnsen, Bridgette ; O'Conner, Shannon ; Roberts, Douglas ; Brewe, Alexis. / Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome. In: Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019 ; Vol. 10.
@article{dc50fc632fe446b3b5a033d32f696906,
title = "Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome",
abstract = "Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety are three of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Early trajectories of social avoidance have been linked with these psychiatric disorders in previous studies, but it remains unclear how social avoidance differentially predicts comorbid disorders in a high-risk genetic subgroup. Here, we delineate the association between trajectories of social avoidance from infancy and subsequent ASD, ADHD, and anxiety outcomes at preschool in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a well-characterized single-gene disorder highly associated with social avoidance as well as elevated rates of ASD, ADHD, and anxiety.Method: Males with FXS (n = 78) aged 4–62 months participated in a longitudinal study resulting in 201 assessments. The Social Avoidance Scale (SAS) documented socially avoidant behaviors from infancy in three domains—physical movement, facial expression, and eye contact during both the first minute and the last hour of an interaction. ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptom outcomes at preschool were measured via parent-report questionnaires.Results: Increased social avoidance across infancy and preschool predicted elevated ASD symptom severity but reduced ADHD and anxiety symptom severity in males with FXS.Conclusion: ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptoms relate inconsistently to social avoidance behaviors, providing new insight toward the debate of independence or overlap among these disorders in FXS and other disorders (i.e., ASD). The results suggest that the nuanced profile of the developmental and temporal aspects of social avoidance may inform more the accuracy of differential diagnoses of comorbid psychiatric disorders in FXS.",
keywords = "Anxiety, Autism, FMR1, Fragile X syndrome, Social avoidance",
author = "Jane Roberts and Hayley Crawford and Elizabeth Will and Abigail Hogan and Samuel McQuillin and Bridgette Tonnsen and Shannon O'Conner and Douglas Roberts and Alexis Brewe",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 Roberts, Crawford, Will, Hogan, McQuillin, Tonnsen, O'Connor, Roberts and Brewe. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "7",
doi = "10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Frontiers in Psychiatry",
issn = "1664-0640",
publisher = "Frontiers Media",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Infant Social Avoidance Predicts Autism but Not Anxiety in Fragile X Syndrome

AU - Roberts, Jane

AU - Crawford, Hayley

AU - Will, Elizabeth

AU - Hogan, Abigail

AU - McQuillin, Samuel

AU - Tonnsen, Bridgette

AU - O'Conner, Shannon

AU - Roberts, Douglas

AU - Brewe, Alexis

N1 - Copyright © 2019 Roberts, Crawford, Will, Hogan, McQuillin, Tonnsen, O'Connor, Roberts and Brewe. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

PY - 2019/5/7

Y1 - 2019/5/7

N2 - Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety are three of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Early trajectories of social avoidance have been linked with these psychiatric disorders in previous studies, but it remains unclear how social avoidance differentially predicts comorbid disorders in a high-risk genetic subgroup. Here, we delineate the association between trajectories of social avoidance from infancy and subsequent ASD, ADHD, and anxiety outcomes at preschool in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a well-characterized single-gene disorder highly associated with social avoidance as well as elevated rates of ASD, ADHD, and anxiety.Method: Males with FXS (n = 78) aged 4–62 months participated in a longitudinal study resulting in 201 assessments. The Social Avoidance Scale (SAS) documented socially avoidant behaviors from infancy in three domains—physical movement, facial expression, and eye contact during both the first minute and the last hour of an interaction. ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptom outcomes at preschool were measured via parent-report questionnaires.Results: Increased social avoidance across infancy and preschool predicted elevated ASD symptom severity but reduced ADHD and anxiety symptom severity in males with FXS.Conclusion: ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptoms relate inconsistently to social avoidance behaviors, providing new insight toward the debate of independence or overlap among these disorders in FXS and other disorders (i.e., ASD). The results suggest that the nuanced profile of the developmental and temporal aspects of social avoidance may inform more the accuracy of differential diagnoses of comorbid psychiatric disorders in FXS.

AB - Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety are three of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Early trajectories of social avoidance have been linked with these psychiatric disorders in previous studies, but it remains unclear how social avoidance differentially predicts comorbid disorders in a high-risk genetic subgroup. Here, we delineate the association between trajectories of social avoidance from infancy and subsequent ASD, ADHD, and anxiety outcomes at preschool in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a well-characterized single-gene disorder highly associated with social avoidance as well as elevated rates of ASD, ADHD, and anxiety.Method: Males with FXS (n = 78) aged 4–62 months participated in a longitudinal study resulting in 201 assessments. The Social Avoidance Scale (SAS) documented socially avoidant behaviors from infancy in three domains—physical movement, facial expression, and eye contact during both the first minute and the last hour of an interaction. ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptom outcomes at preschool were measured via parent-report questionnaires.Results: Increased social avoidance across infancy and preschool predicted elevated ASD symptom severity but reduced ADHD and anxiety symptom severity in males with FXS.Conclusion: ASD, ADHD, and anxiety symptoms relate inconsistently to social avoidance behaviors, providing new insight toward the debate of independence or overlap among these disorders in FXS and other disorders (i.e., ASD). The results suggest that the nuanced profile of the developmental and temporal aspects of social avoidance may inform more the accuracy of differential diagnoses of comorbid psychiatric disorders in FXS.

KW - Anxiety

KW - Autism

KW - FMR1

KW - Fragile X syndrome

KW - Social avoidance

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066996217&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199

DO - 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00199

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Frontiers in Psychiatry

JF - Frontiers in Psychiatry

SN - 1664-0640

M1 - 199

ER -