Individual differences in meditation outcomes

Ivana Buric, Inti A. Brazil, Valerie van Mulukom

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Meditation generally has small to moderate effects on health and well-being, but some people experience greater benefits from meditation than others. What are the characteristics of the study participants or meditation students that lead to beneficial outcomes of meditation? This chapter adopts a multilevel approach to evaluate the evidence on the relationship between participant characteristics and individual differences in meditation outcomes across four sources of variability: personality and other psychological variables, biological variables, illness severity, and demographic factors. Research in the area is sparse and has several methodological shortcomings, thus the authors recommend the use of multilevel models and meta-regression as ways of properly incorporating the study of individual differences with other variables.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Oxford Handbook of Meditation
EditorsMiguel Farias, David Brazier, Mansur Lalljee
PublisherOxford University Press
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Mar 2019

Bibliographical note

Valerie van Mulukom is a Research Fellow at Coventry University. She is a cognitive scientist whose research focuses on imagination, memory, and belief, using methodologies from experimental and social psychology, and embodied and cognitive neuroscience. She is an editor of the Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion.


  • individual differences
  • meditation
  • mindfulness
  • personality
  • illness severity
  • biology
  • demographics

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Individual differences in meditation outcomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this