Independent or simultaneous lowering of core and skin temperature has no impact on self-paced intermittent running performance in hot conditions

Gavin Thomas, Tom Cullen, Matthew Davies, Connor Hetherton, Benedict Duncan, Nicola Gerrett

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    7 Citations (Scopus)
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    Purpose: To investigate the effects of lowering core (T gi) and mean skin temperature (T sk) concomitantly and independently on self-paced intermittent running in the heat. Methods: 10 males (30.5 ± 5.8 years, 73.2 ± 14.5 kg, 176.9 ± 8.0 cm, 56.2 ± 6.6 ml/kg/min) completed four randomised 46-min self-paced intermittent protocols on a non-motorised treadmill in 34.4 ± 1.4 °C, 36.3 ± 4.6% relative humidity. 30-min prior to exercise, participants were cooled via either ice slurry ingestion (INT); a cooling garment (EXT); mixed-cooling (ice slurry and cooling garment concurrently) (MIX); or no-cooling (CON). Results: At the end of pre-cooling and the start of exercise T gi were lower during MIX (36.11 ± 1.3 °C) compared to CON (37.6 ± 0.5 °C) and EXT (36.9 ± 0.5 °C, p < 0.05). Throughout pre-cooling T sk and thermal sensation were lower in MIX compared to CON and INT, but not EXT (p < 0.05). The reductions in thermophysiological responses diminished within 10–20 min of exercise. Despite lowering T gi, T sk, body temperature (T b), and thermal sensation prior to exercise, the distances covered were similar (CON: 6.69 ± 1.08 km, INT: 6.96 ± 0.81 km, EXT: 6.76 ± 0.65 km, MIX 6.87 ± 0.70 km) (p > 0.05). Peak sprint speeds were also similar between conditions (CON: 25.6 ± 4.48 km/h, INT: 25.4 ± 3.6 km/h, EXT: 26.0 ± 4.94 km/h, MIX: 25.6 ± 3.58 km/h) (p > 0.05). Blood lactate, heart rate and RPE were similar between conditions (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Lowering T gi and T sk prior to self-paced intermittent exercise did not improve sprint, or submaximal running performance.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1841–1853
    Number of pages13
    JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
    Issue number8
    Early online date20 Jun 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

    Bibliographical note

    This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


    • Intermittent exercise
    • Performance
    • Pre-cooling
    • Self-pacing
    • Team sports
    • Thermoregulation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Physiology (medical)


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