In situ Observation of Calcium Oxide Treatment of Inclusions in Molten Steel by Confocal Microscopy

Bharat Khurana, Stephen Spooner, M. B. V. Rao, Gour Gopal Roy, Prakash Srirangam

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Calcium treatment of aluminum killed steel was observed in situ using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope (HT-CSLM). This technique along with a novel experimental design enables continuous observation of clustering behavior of inclusions before and after the calcium treatment. Results show that the increase in average inclusion size in non-calcium-treated condition was much faster compared to calcium-treated condition. Results also show that the magnitude of attractive capillary force between inclusion particles in non-treated condition was about 10−15 N for larger particles (10 µm) and 10−16 N for smaller particles (5 µm) and acting length of force was about 30 µm. In the case of calcium-treated condition, the magnitude and acting length of force was reduced to 10−16 N and 10 µm, respectively, for particles of all sizes. This change in attractive capillary attractive force is due to change in inclusion morphology from solid alumina disks to liquid lens particles during calcium treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1409-1415
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Early online date9 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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  • Liquid Steel
  • Molten Steel
  • Inclusion Particle
  • Calcium Treatment
  • Cluster Behavior


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