In situ monitoring the effects of Ti6A14V powder oxidation during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

Gowtham Soundarapandiyan, Chu Lun Alex Leung, Carol Johnston, Bo Chen, Raja H.U. Khan, Phil McNutt, Alisha Bhatt, Robert C. Atwood, Peter D. Lee, Michael Fitzpatrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Making laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing process sustainable requires effective powder recycling. Recycling of Ti6A14V powder in L-PBF can lead to powder oxidation, however, such impact on laser-matter interactions, process, and defect dynamics during L-PBF are not well understood. This study reveals and quantifies the effects of processing Ti6A14V powders with low (0.12wt%) and high (0.40wt%) oxygen content during multilayer thin-wall L-PBF using in situ high speed synchrotron X-ray imaging. Our results reveal that high oxygen content Ti6A14V powder can reduce melt ejections, surface roughness, and defect population in the built parts. With increasing oxygen content in the part, there is an increase in microhardness due to solid solution strengthening and no significant change in the microstructure is evident.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104049
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
Early online date19 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This research was made possible by the sponsorship and support of the Lloyd's Register Foundation, a charitable organisation that helps to protect life and property by supporting engineering-related education, public engagement and the application of research. The authors acknowledge the XCT facility and analysis at the Research Complex at Harwell (RCaH), funded through the UK-EPSRC MAPP: Future Manufacturing Hub (EP/P006566/1), Manufacturing by Design (EP/W003333/1), and Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (EP/V061798/1); Data-driven, Reliable, and Effective Additive Manufacturing using multi-BEAM technologies (EP/W037483/1) and other grants (EP/R511638/1, EP/I02249X/1 and EP/M009688/1)), and a Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Emerging Technology (CiET1819/10).


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Ti6A14V
  • Laser powder bed fusion
  • Powder recycling
  • Powder oxidation
  • Process monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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