As the drive to improve the cost, performance characteristics and safety of lithium-ion batteries increases with adoption, one area where significant value could be added is that of battery diagnostics. This paper documents an investigation into the use of plasmonic-based optical fibre sensors, inserted internally into 1.4 Ah lithium-ion pouch cells, as a real time and in-situ diagnostic technique. The successful implementation of the fibres inside pouch cells is detailed and promising correlation with battery state is reported, while having negligible impact on cell performance in terms of capacity and columbic efficiency. The testing carried out includes standard cycling and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) tests, and the use of a reference electrode to correlate with the anode and cathode readings separately. Further observations are made around the sensor and analyte interaction mechanisms, robustness of sensors and suggested further developments. These finding show that a plasmonic-based optical fibre sensor may have potential as an opto-electrochemical diagnostic technique for lithium-ion batteries, offering an unprecedented view into internal cell phenomena.
Bibliographical noteThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
- Li-Ion battery
- pouch cells
- plasmonic sensing
- optical fibres