Impact of Vehicle Headlights Radiation Pattern on Dynamic Vehicular VLC Channel

Farah Mahdi Yaseen Al-Sallami, Nurudeen Aigoro, Abdulrahman Abdullahi Mahmoud, Zahir Ahmad, Paul Anthony Haigh, Olivier Haas, Sujan Rajbhandari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
205 Downloads (Pure)


This article develops a statistical large-scale fading (path loss) model of a dynamic vehicular visible light communication (VVLC) system. The proposed model combines the impact of inter-vehicle spacing and the radiation intensity distribution as a function of the irradiance angle which changes with the traffic conditions. Three models (Lambertian, Gaussian, and empirical) are utilized to examine the impact of vehicles headlights radiation pattern on the statistical path loss of VVLC system. The analytical model of channel path loss is validated by Monte Carlo simulation with the headlight model simulated with a raytracing software. The path loss values of the Gaussian model differ by 2 dB compared to the Lambertian model, irrespective of the traffic conditions while it differs by 24.6 dB during late night and 8.15 dB during rush hours compared to the empirical model of a Toyota Altis headlight. This variation shows that the radiation intensity distribution should be modelled for each vehicle's headlights from each manufacturer to ensure accurate VVLC channel model. The proposed Gaussian model provides a close approximation to describe such radiation pattern and can easily be adapted to model for different manufacturers' headlights.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9373901
Pages (from-to)3162-3168
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number10
Early online date9 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.


  • Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication
  • visible light communication (VLC)
  • outdoor channel model
  • Statistical communication channel mode
  • Fading channels
  • Statistical communication channel model
  • Computational modeling
  • Roads
  • Loss measurement
  • Channel models
  • Vehicle dynamics
  • Antenna radiation patterns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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