Impact of the Number of Planetary Gears on the Energy Efficiency of Electrified Powertrains

Daizy Rajput, Jose Martin Herreros, Mauro Innocente, Jeremy Bryans, Joschka Schaub, Arash Moradinegade Dizqah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
49 Downloads (Pure)


Planetary gears (PGs) play a critical role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) by combining the output torques of different powertrain components and delivering the resulting torque to the wheels. Whilst previous studies show that the number of planetary gears affects performance of HEVs, there is no prior study to systematically investigate such effects on energy consumption. This paper quantifies the energy efficiency improvement of HEVs due to increasing the number of PGs from one to two, and from two to three. This is done by comparing the minimum energy consumption for different topologies when the rest of the powertrain components –namely electric motors, batteries and engine– are the same. To calculate the minimum energy consumption, the paper proposes an optimal energy management strategy (EMS) for each topology to find the optimum sequence of clutch engagement and torque distribution. The minimum energy consumption of a vehicle with different number of PGs is then evaluated using the automotive simulation models (ASM) from dSpace. Results show that, for the same electric motors and engine, increasing the number of PGs from one to two and from two to three reduces energy consumption by 5% and 1.5%, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number 119531
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date20 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (


  • Hybrid electric vehicle
  • Energy management strategy
  • Optimal control
  • Automotive simulation models
  • dSPACE
  • AMPL
  • Neos server
  • Gearbox


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