Impact of residual stress and elastic follow-up on fracture

C.J. Aird, S. Hadidi-Moud, C.E. Truman, D.J. Smith

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    13 Citations (Scopus)


    The presence of tensile residual stress in cracked structures combined with external loading
    leads to circumstances where a structure may fail at a lower applied load than when residual stresses are
    not present. This is taken into consideration in the fracture assessment codes which are usually invoked to
    determine whether a cracked structure is fit-for-purpose. These codes typically attempt to decompose the
    stresses present in the structure under consideration into either “secondary” or “primary” components, in
    order to simplify the assessment and avoid the need for detailed numerical modeling. It is acknowledged
    that whether a given residual stress field should be classified as “secondary” or as “primary” is dependent
    on the level of associated elastic follow-up EFU. However, although there is a significant body of work
    related to the influence of EFU on the high temperature creep behavior of uncracked structures, the EFU
    concept has not yet been rigorously applied to the fracture assessment of cracked structures. This paper
    represents a first step towards a more rigorous application of the EFU concept to the fracture assessment
    of cracked structures containing residual stresses. Insight is provided into the influence of residual stress
    and EFU on fracture by considering the behavior of a simple three-bar assembly. Having introduced the
    concept, a three-bar type test rig capable of generating fit-up residual stresses with varying levels of EFU
    in a compact-tension fracture-specimen is presented. Results, produced using this test rig, from two cases
    with identical levels of initial residual stress but different levels of associated EFU are considered. It is
    concluded that EFU is important in determining how the residual force in the specimen changes and
    therefore how the component of crack driving force associated with the residual force changes as damage
    accumulates in the specimen subsequent to fracture initiation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-14
    Number of pages15
    JournalJournal of ASTM International
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • residual stress
    • elastic follow-up
    • fracture assessment


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