Impact of locus of control expectancy on level of well-being

Kurt A. April, Babar Dharani, Kai Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the impact of locus of control, a psychological social learning theory that is rigorously researched for its implications on leadership qualities, on the level of happiness of an individual. The primary research strategy employed was the survey strategy. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that was designed to test, amongst other variables, their locus of control and level of happiness. The Spearman Rank Correlation hypothesis test was used to test the data for significance and strength of the relationship. As a secondary research approach, self-reflection documents written by research participants, on the topic of locus of control, were used to add personal expression to the discussion of the quantitative results. While academic literature vastly supports the view that leadership qualities are predominantly present in those with an internal locus of control, our research results conclude that a maximum level of happiness is achieved by individuals with a balanced locus of control expectancy - a mix of internal and external locus of control, alternatively known as 'bi-local expectancy'.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-137
Number of pages14
JournalReview of European Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Bi-local
  • Expectancies
  • Happiness
  • Leadership
  • Locus of control
  • Subjective well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • History


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