Impact of Lean, Agile and Green (LAG) on Business Competitiveness: An Empirical Study of Fast Moving Consumer Goods Businesses

Chinonso Kenneth Udokporo , Anthony Anosike, Ming Lim, Simon Peter Nadeem, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Chidi Premie Ogbuka

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)
    432 Downloads (Pure)


    The adoption/utilisation of Lean, Agile and Green (LAG) practices in both the manufacturing and service sector is rising. However, there yet remain a research gap to precisely evaluate the relationship between LAG practices and business competitiveness (e.g, achieving reduction in cost, lead time and environmental recyclable waste). This research aims to explore this relationship, specifically in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) businesses. The hypothesised relationships are tested with data collected from 96 FMCG companies. Structural Equation Modelling is applied to evaluate different channels of achieving business competitiveness through the adoption of Lean, Agile and Green. The findings suggest that competitive outcomes vary with the adoption of LAG practices in specific product life cycle stages. This implies that awareness of the product life cycle concept is essential. A combination of LAG practices for the sole purpose of reducing environmental waste is negatively related to environmental waste reduction. LAG practices are more efficiently adopted when the adopters are equipped with expert knowledge on the paradigms and their individual practices. This research has approached the attainment of competitiveness in the FMCG businesses by analysing management efforts that improve cost performance, lead time and environmental sustainability aspects of business operations. The research has also considered the product life cycle stages in analysing the impacts of management efforts.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104714
    JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
    Early online date8 Feb 2020
    Publication statusPublished - May 2020

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Resources, Conservation and Recycling 156, (2020) DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104714

    © 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


    • Agile
    • Competitiveness
    • Green
    • Lean
    • Product life cycle

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Waste Management and Disposal
    • Economics and Econometrics


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