Impact of exhaust gas fuel reforming and exhaust gas recirculation on particulate matter morphology in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

M. Bogarra, Jose Martin Herreros, A. Tsolakis, A. P. E. York, P. J. Millington, F. J. Martos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)
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Modern Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines offer increased power output, improved fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increased particulate matter (PM) emission level still remains a challenging task. Understanding PM features such as morphological and microstructural parameters through transmission electron microscopy can provide information about their formation, filtration and soot oxidation processes in the gasoline particulate filters and their impact on human health. This research article characterises PM emitted from a 2 L 4-cylinder GDI engine at two injection timings: (i) ECU settings which produces PM with high volatile content and (ii) advanced injection timing to increase soot formation rate. Primary particle size distributions formed by volatile nature PM, present a higher standard deviation than for the sooty PM, while the former ones presented higher fractal dimension. In addition, five different methods of estimating PM fractal dimension reported in the GDI literature have also been compared and it was concluded that the arising trends were in agreement. The effect of high percentages of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and reformate gas combustion on PM characteristics have been analysed. EGR does not have a significant effect in PM morphology. On the other hand, reformate combustion reduces the size of the primary particle and the agglomerates as well as increasing the fractal dimension.

Publisher statement: NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Aerosol Science. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Aerosol Science, [103 (2016)] DOI: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.10.001

© 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
JournalJournal of Aerosol Science
Early online date6 Oct 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

Bibliographical note

Due to publisher policy, the full text is not available on the repository until the 6th of October 2018.


  • Particulate matter
  • Fuel reforming
  • Soot morphology
  • Gasoline Direct Injection
  • Transmission electron microscope


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