Immunotherapy of immunosenesence; who, how and when?

Sheila Govind, Antonio Lapenna, Pierre Olivier Lang, Richard Aspinall

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Major changes in social welfare, economic conditions and medical knowledge over the last 60 years have pro-duced a demographic shift in the population. More individuals are living longer, and in a decade there will be more people over 65 than infants under 5 for the first time in history. Taking the analysis beyond mere numbers reveals that older indi-viduals are now physically more active than their forebears and travel more widely. This provides a greater opportunity for encountering infectious agents which could present a considerable problem. Older individuals are more susceptible to infection and do not respond as well as younger people to vaccination because of an age related decline in immunity, a state which has been termed immunosenesence. This decline is not uniform and some older individuals show a greater de-cline in their immune response than others. In this review we have sought to consider who are the 'at risk' individuals, how they might best be treated and when.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-63
Number of pages8
JournalOpen Longevity Science
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


  • Frailty
  • Healthy ageing
  • Immunosenescence
  • Rejuvenation
  • Reversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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