Identifying the attack sources of botnets for a renewable energy management system by using a revised locust swarm optimisation scheme

Hsiao Chung Lin, Ping Wang, Wen Hui Lin, Kuo Ming Chao, Zong Yu Yang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)
    14 Downloads (Pure)


    Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks often use botnets to generate a high volume of packets and adopt controlled zombies for flooding a victim’s network over the Internet. Analysing the multiple sources of DDoS attacks typically involves reconstructing attack paths between the victim and attackers by using Internet protocol traceback (IPTBK) schemes. In general, traditional route-searching algorithms, such as particle swarm optimisation (PSO), have a high convergence speed for IPTBK, but easily fall into the local optima. This paper proposes an IPTBK analysis scheme for multimodal optimisation problems by applying a revised locust swarm optimisation (LSO) algorithm to the reconstructed attack path in order to identify the most probable attack paths. For evaluating the effectiveness of the DDoS control centres, networks with a topology size of 32 and 64 nodes were simulated using the ns-3 tool. The average accuracy of the LS-PSO algorithm reached 97.06 for the effects of dynamic traffic in two experimental networks (number of nodes = 32 and 64). Compared with traditional PSO algorithms, the revised LSO algorithm exhibited a superior searching performance in multimodal optimisation problems and increased the accuracy in traceability analysis for IPTBK problems.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1295
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Funding: This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under grant no. MOST 108-3116-F-168-001-CC2, no. MOST 109-2410–H-168-005 and the green energy technology research center on the featured areas research center program within the framework of the higher education sprout project from Ministry of Education (MOE) of Taiwan.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021 by the authors.


    • Distributed denial of service
    • Internet protocol traceback
    • Locust swarm optimisation
    • Multisubswarm strategy
    • Ns-3

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
    • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
    • Mathematics(all)
    • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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