Identifying Cultural and Cognitive Proximity between Managers and Customers in Tornio and Haparanda Cross Border Region

Adi Weidenfeld, Peter Bjork, Allan Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Knowledge from customers is transferred to managers in cross border regions via intercultural interactions poses distinctive constraints and opportunities for learning but has remained understudied. This study examines elements of cognitive and cultural proximity which shape these processes. It is based on a survey of 91 managers of small service firms and 312 customers in the twin city of TornioHaparanda on the border between Finland and Sweden. Seven elements of proximity were identified and measured. The study contributes to understanding how perceived proximity between actors from relatively similar cultures is related to manager learning from customers and suggests new strategies for effective cross border learning outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
JournalJournal of Borderlands Studies
Early online date21 Aug 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Aug 2018

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Borderlands Studies on 21/08/2018, available online:

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  • border regions
  • Innovation
  • Knowledge transfer

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