This study evaluated the effectiveness and acceptance of four connected vehicle features, i.e. Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW), Roadworks warning (RWW) and Traffic Condition Warning (TCW) which were presented via a mobile phone mounted near the line of sight. A driving simulator study was conducted in which 36 drivers were exposed to different levels of urgent and critical situations. They involved the approach of an emergency vehicle, an emergency braking of a lead vehicle, a roadworks area and a congested section of a road. All these events took place in a simulated motorway scenario. In the EEBL event, the vehicle braking ahead with the brake lights on was either visible or not (between-subjects). Whereas no effect of RWW and TCW were observed on driving behaviour, results showed that drivers who were shown the EEBL warnings had shorter braking and decelerating response times, and a slower mean speed during the events, and this was independent of brake lights visibility. The EVW resulted in participants giving way to the emergency vehicle (i.e. staying on the slow lane instead of overtaking slower vehicles) more frequently than those who did not receive the warning. The mobile phone app was accepted and considered usable. Locating the mobile phone in different locations within the drivers' line of sight (i.e. dashboard, instrument cluster) did not impact significantly neither drivers' attitudes nor behaviour. Additional in-vehicle information systems could enhance safety and allow emergency vehicles to get faster to their destination.
FunderThe authors would like to thank the Innovate-UK funded project UKCITE for supporting this study.
- Connected vehicle
- Emergency electronic brake lights
- Emergency vehicle warning
- Human machine interface
- Mobile phone app
- Road safety
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Human Factors and Ergonomics
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
- Engineering (miscellaneous)