The clear multi-scale structure of composite textile reinforcements leads to develop continuous and discrete approaches for their forming simulations. In this paper two continuous modelling respectively based on a hypoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive model are presented. A discrete approach is also considered in which each yarn is modelled by shell finite elements and where the contact with friction and possible sliding between the yarns are taken into account. Finally the semi-discrete approach is presented in which the shell finite element interpolation involves continuity of the displacement field but where the internal virtual work is obtained as the sum of tension, in-plane shear and bending ones of all the woven unit cells within the element. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are discussed.
- Textile composites
- Forming simulations
- Continuous/discrete approaches
- Semi-discrete finite element