Hybrid entrepreneurship: a systematic literature review

Cemre Demir, Arndt Werner, Sascha Kraus, Paul Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Hybrid entrepreneurship describes the engagement in self-employment activity while simultaneously holding a primary job in waged work. Because this phenomenon has received increasing scholarly attention in recent years, this study offers a first systematic literature review and uncovers both consensus and contradictions in the existing literature. Specifically, 43 papers were analyzed with respect to bibliographical information, research design and key results. We find that there is a missing consensus in applied nomenclatures, criteria and conception of hybrid entrepreneurship and a delineation of hybrid entrepreneurship from related concepts. As a result, alternative terminology is used to label the same phenomenon by different authors. Together, our study increases understanding of hybrid entrepreneurship by providing a holistic perspective of the phenomena and by offering avenues for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-52
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
Issue number1
Early online date30 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Hybrid entrepreneurship
  • part-time entrepreneurship


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