Human Capital and Exports: A Micro-level Analysis of Transition Countries

Arta Mulliqi, Nick Adnett, Mehtap Hisarciklilar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
305 Downloads (Pure)


This paper investigates the impact of human capital endowments on export intensity employing firm level data for 29 transition economies. A particular focus is placed on comparing and contrasting Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEECs) with those from the former Soviet Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The impact of the share of employees with higher education, provision of on-the-job training, years of experience of the top manager and labour cost on export intensity is assessed. To test these relationships, Tobit and Fractional Logit approaches are adopted. The estimation results suggest that, overall, having a more educated workforce exerts a positive impact on the export intensity of firms in transition economies, the magnitude being larger for CEECs. Average labour cost, as an alternative measure, also turns out to exert a positive but stronger impact. Insufficient evidence is found of a role for training programmes and years of experience of the top manager.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775-800
Number of pages26
JournalThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
Issue number7
Early online date11 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development on 11/04/2018, available online:

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • education
  • Export intensity
  • human capital
  • transition economies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development
  • Aerospace Engineering


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