Human activated macrophages and hypoxia: a comprehensive review of the literature

Fattah Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Bernard Burke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)


Macrophages accumulate in poorly vascularised and hypoxic sites including solid tumours, wounds and sites of infection and inflammation where they can be exposed to low levels of oxygen for long periods. Up to date, different studies have shown that a number of transcription factors are activated by hypoxia which in turn activate a broad array of mitogenic, pro-invasive, pro-angiogenic, and pro-metastatic genes. On the other hand, macrophages respond to hypoxia by up-regulating several genes which are chief factors in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Therefore, in this review article we focus mainly on the role of macrophages during inflammation and discuss their response to hypoxia by regulating a diverse array of transcription factors. We also review the existing literatures on hypoxia and its cellular and molecular mechanism which mediates macrophages activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)820-30
Number of pages11
JournalIranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.


  • Hypoxia
  • Hypoxia inducible factors
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophages


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