Hospital-Acquired Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: An Observational Study

Hamzah J Aldali, Azra Khan, Abdullah A Alshehri, Jehad A Aldali, Sultan Ayoub Meo, Ali Hindi, Emadeldin M Elsokkary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Worldwide, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are continuously rising within healthcare settings, leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. Many hospitals have reported the spread of carbapenemases globally, specifically within the E. coli and K. pneumoniae species. This study was aimed at analyzing the state of hospital-acquired, carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2021. Moreover, the study analyzed the most efficacious approaches to patient management for controlling the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) spread. Initially, 1094 articles were identified as relevant for screening, and among them, 49 papers were eligible for full-text screening, with a total of 14 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The information was recorded from published articles through PubMed, the Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and the Cochrane library and was used to search for hospital-acquired carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K pneumoniae in the UK between 2009 and 2021, in order to evaluate the spread of CRE in hospitals. The total number of carbapenem-resistant E. coli was 1083 and this was 2053 for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in more than 63 UK hospitals. KPC was the dominant carbapenemase produced by K. pneumoniae. The results showed that the treatment options considered depended on the type of carbapenemase produced; K. pneumoniae showed more resistance to a treatment options, i.e., Colistin, than the other carbapenemase. The current state of the UK is at minimal risk for a CRE outbreak; however, appropriate treatment and infection control measures are highly required to prevent this CRE spread at the regional and global levels. The present study findings have an important message for physicians, healthcare workers, and policymakers about hospital-acquired carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae spread and approaches to patient management.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1595
Number of pages13
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabia (IFKSUOR3-4-2). Funding Information: The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research & Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through project no (IFKSUOR3-4-2). Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors


  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Hospital-acquired Infection
  • Carbapenem-resistant


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