High cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth rate in additive manufactured titanium alloys

Xiang Zhang, Abdul Khadar Syed, Romali Biswal, Filomeno Martina, Jialuo Ding, Stewart Williams

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    The Wire + Arc Additive Manufacture (WAAM) process can produce large metal parts in the metre scale, at much higher deposition rate and more efficient material usage compared to the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) processes. WAAM process also offers lead time reduction and much lower buy-to-fly ratio compared to traditional process methods, e.g. forgings. Research is much needed in the areas of fatigue and fracture performance for qualification and certification of additive manufactured aircraft components. In this study, specimens made of WAAM Ti-6Al-4V alloy were tested and analysed focusing on two key areas of structural integrity and durability: (1) High cycle fatigue and effect of defects: crack initiation at porosity defects was investigated via fatigue and interrupted fatigue-tomography testing performed on specimens with porosity defects purposely embedded in the specimen gauge section. Key findings are as follows. Presence of porosity did not affect the tensile strengths, however both ductility and fatigue strength were significantly reduced. Fatigue life could not be correlated by the applied stress, e.g. in terms of the S-N curves, owing to the different pore sizes. Using the fracture mechanics approach and Murakami's stress intensity factor equation for pores, good correlation was found between the fatigue life and stress intensity factor range of the crack initiating defects. Predictive methods for fatigue strength reduction were developed taking account of the defect size, location, and distribution. (2) Fatigue crack growth rate: effect of heterogeneous microstructure was investigated via two different material deposition methods and testing two crack orientations. Fatigue crack growth rates were measured for damage tolerance design considerations. Unique microstructure features and their effect on the property anisotropy are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationICAF 2019 – Structural Integrity in the Age of Additive Manufacturing - Proceedings of the 30th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, 2019
    EditorsAntoni Niepokolczycki, Jerzy Komorowski
    Number of pages12
    ISBN (Print)9783030215026
    Publication statusPublished - 2020
    Event30th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, ICAF 2019 - Warsaw, Poland
    Duration: 2 Jun 20197 Jun 2019

    Publication series

    NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
    ISSN (Print)2195-4356
    ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


    Conference30th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, ICAF 2019


    • Additive manufacturing
    • Fatigue crack growth rate
    • Fatigue crack initiation
    • Porosity defects

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Automotive Engineering
    • Aerospace Engineering
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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