Hierarchical Sizing and Power Distribution Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System

Jianwei Li, Hongwen He, Zhongbao Wei, Xudong Zhang

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    21 Citations (Scopus)
    48 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper proposes a hierarchical sizing method and a power distribution strategy of a hybrid energy storage system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), aiming to reduce both the energy consumption and battery degradation cost. As the optimal size matching is significant to multi-energy systems like PHEV with both battery and supercapacitor (SC), this hybrid system is adopted herein. First, the hierarchical optimization is conducted, when the optimal power of the internal combustion engine is calculated based on dynamic programming, and a wavelet transformer is introduced to distribute the power between the battery and the SC. Then, the fuel economy and battery degradation are evaluated to return feedback value to each sizing point within the hybrid energy storage system sizing space, obtaining the optimal sizes for the battery and the SC by comparing all the values in the whole sizing space. Finally, an all-hardware test platform is established with a fully active power conversion topology, on which the real-time control capability of the wavelet transformer method and the size matching between the battery and the SC are verified in both short and long time spans.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)440-447
    Number of pages8
    JournalAutomotive Innovation
    Issue number4
    Early online date28 Oct 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

    Funding Information:
    This work was supported by the Nature Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 51807008 and China Association for Science and Technology Youth Talent Promotion Project.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021, The Author(s).


    • Battery energy storage
    • Hierarchical sizing
    • Hybrid energy storage
    • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Automotive Engineering


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