Heteroatom doped-carbon nanospheres as anodes in lithium ion batteries

George S. Pappas, Stefania Ferrari, Xiaobin Huang, Rohit Bhagat, David M. Haddleton, Chaoying Wan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. Newformulations and/or improvement of "conventional" materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur) and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene) nanospheres (OPZs) of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 4,41-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS). The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N2 sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m2/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge-discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA· h· g-1. This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
Number of pages13
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


  • Carbon nanospheres
  • Lithium batteries
  • Organo phosphazene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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