Health implications due to exposure to fine and ultra-fine particulate matters

R Sharma, O.P. Kurmi, P. Hariprasad, S. K. Tyagi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Air pollution has caused 40% higher deaths than that of COVID-19, in the past two years; making it a most serious global concern with the exponential increase in health implications and mortality over the last few decades. Air pollution is characterized by fine and ultra-fine particulate matter and gaseous pollutants exhibiting diverse sizes and volatility responsible for various diseases such as respiratory, cardiovascular, hypertension, stroke, and lung cancer. These pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from numerous anthropogenic sources mainly the combustion of different types of fuels resulting in the exponential enhancement of pollution levels. This manuscript discusses the impact of hazardous pollutants on human health, encompassing different types, levels, sizes, and sources originating from anthropogenic activities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 72.67% of global deaths are attributed to non-communicable diseases (NCD), predominantly influenced by environmental pollutants. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and below) and other toxic gaseous pollutants are major contributors, responsible for more than 16% of total NCD mortality. Cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and other ailments constitute the majority of these deaths.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2314256
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Ambient Energy
Issue number1
Early online date16 Feb 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Feb 2024


  • Air pollution
  • fine andultra-fine particulate matter
  • health impacts
  • mortality


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