Haptic Foot Pedal: Influence of Shoe Type, Age, and Gender on Subjective Pulse Perception

Claudia Geitner, Stewart Birrell, Claudia Krehl, Paul Jennings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This study investigates the influence of shoe type (sneakers and safety boots), age, and gender on the perception of haptic pulse feedback provided by a prototype accelerator pedal in a running stationary vehicle. Background: Haptic feedback can be a less distracting alternative to traditionally visual and auditory in-vehicle feedback. However, to be effective, the device delivering the haptic feedback needs to be in contact with the person. Factors such as shoe type vary naturally over the season and could render feedback that is perceived well in one situation, unnoticeable in another. In this study, we evaluate factors that can influence the subjective perception of haptic feedback in a stationary but running car: shoe type, age, and gender. Method: Thirty-six drivers within three age groups (≤39, 40–59, and ≥60) took part. For each haptic feedback, participants rated intensity, urgency, and comfort via a questionnaire. Results: The perception of the haptic feedback is significantly influenced by the interaction between the pulse’s duration and force amplitude and the participant’s age and gender but not shoe type. Conclusion: The results indicate that it is important to consider different age groups and gender in the evaluation of haptic feedback. Future research might also look into approaches to adapt haptic feedback to the individual driver’s preferences. Application: Findings from this study can be applied to the design of an accelerator pedal in a car, for example, for a nonvisual in-vehicle warning, but also to plan user studies with a haptic pedal in general.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-509
Number of pages14
JournalHuman Factors
Issue number4
Early online date16 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • driver assistance system
  • haptic perception
  • tactile interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Haptic Foot Pedal: Influence of Shoe Type, Age, and Gender on Subjective Pulse Perception'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this