GNSS Vulnerabilities and Existing Solutions: A Review of the Literature

Jasmine Zidan, E. I. Adegoke, Stewart Birrell, Col R. Ford, Matthew D. Higgins

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    51 Citations (Scopus)
    255 Downloads (Pure)


    This literature review paper focuses on existing vulnerabilities associated with global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs). With respect to the civilian/non encrypted GNSSs, they are employed for proving positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) solutions across a wide range of industries. Some of these include electric power grids, stock exchange systems, cellular communications, agriculture, unmanned aerial systems and intelligent transportation systems. In this survey paper, physical degradations, existing threats and solutions adopted in academia and industry are presented. In regards to GNSS threats, jamming and spoofing attacks as well as detection techniques adopted in the literature are surveyed and summarized. Also discussed are multipath propagation in GNSS and non line-of-sight (NLoS) detection techniques. The review also identifies and discusses open research areas and techniques which can be investigated for the purpose of enhancing the robustness of GNSS.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)153960-153976
    Number of pages17
    JournalIEEE Access
    Early online date13 Feb 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Bibliographical note

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    • GNSS
    • GNSS vulnerabilities
    • GNSS robustness
    • Positioning
    • Navigation
    • Timing


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