Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary insulin index, and dietary insulin load in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors among participants with atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional study

Hossein Bavi Behbahani, Mahshad Shokuhi, Cain C. T. Clark, Ahmad Zare Javid, Vahideh Aghamohammadi, Hadi bazyar, Mahsa Samadani, Habib Haybar

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Abstract

Background: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary Glycemic Index (GI), Glycemic Load (GL), Dietary Insulin Index (DII), and Dietary Insulin Load (DIL) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) factors in subjects with atherosclerosis. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects with atherosclerosis. Regular dietary intake was assessed using a 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and GI, GL, DIL, and DII were also calculated. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated for general and central obesity according to the GI, GL, DII, and DIL. Results: According to the continuous score of GL, there was a significant positive association between GL and central obesity for women in all models. Regarding the association between DIL score and biochemical variables, there was a significant positive association between Na and Aspartate transaminase (AST) with DII. Moreover, there was a significant positive association between LDL-c(p = 0.03) and AST (p = 0.04)with DIL score in all 3 models. Conclusion: In this study, GL was associated with greater odds of central obesity in women, but not in men. Neither dietary DII nor DIL was associated with BMI and central obesity. GI, GL, DII, and DIL were significantly associated with some CVD risk biomarkers in subjects with atherosclerosis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number98 (2023)
Number of pages18
JournalBMC Nutrition
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Funder

This study was financially supported by the Student Research Committee of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Grant's number: 99s54).

Keywords

  • Cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Dietary insulin index
  • Dietary insulin load
  • Glycemic index
  • Glycemic load

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