Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990-2019: Update From the GBD 2019 Study

GBD-NHLBI-JACC Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Writing Group

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Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2982-3021
Number of pages40
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume76
Issue number25
Early online date9 Dec 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

ª 2020 THE AUTHORS. PUBLISHED BY ELSEVIER ON BEHALF OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY FOUNDATION. THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Funder

This study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Benjamin has received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (R01HL092577, 1R01HL128914) and American Heart Association (18SFRN34110082). Dr. Brauer has received a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Catapano has received support from Fondazione Cariplo 2015-0524 and 2015-0564, H2020 REPROGRAM PHC-03-2015/667837-2, ERA NET ER-2017-2364981, GR-2011-02346974, Ministry of Health - Ricerca Corrente Multimedica; has received research grant/support from Sanofi, Sanofi Regeneron, Amgen, Mylan, Menarini, and Eli Lilly; has served on the speakers bureau for Akcea, Amgen, Sanofi, Esperion, Kowa, Novartis, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Mylan, Menarini, Merck, Recordati, Regeneron, Daiichi-Sankyo, AstraZeneca, Aegerion, Amryt, and Sandoz; has received honoraria from Akcea, Amgen, Sanofi, Esperion, Kowa, Novartis, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Mylan, Menarini, Merck, Recordati, Regeneron Daiichi-Sankyo, AstraZeneca, Aegerion, Amryt, and Sandoz; and has served as a consultant/on the Advisory Board for Akcea, Amgen, Sanofi, Esperion, Kowa, Novartis, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Mylan, Menarini, Merck, Recordati, Regeneron Daiichi-Sankyo, Genzyme, Aegerion, and Sandoz. Dr. Coresh has received funding from the NIH and National Kidney Foundation; and has served as an advisor to Healthy.io. Dr. Fowkes has served on the Advisory Board for AstraZeneca. Dr. Muntner has received grants and personal fees from Amgen Inc. Dr. Ribeiro has received partial support by CNPq (310679/2016-8 and 465518/2014-1) and by FAPEMIG (PPM-00428-17). Dr. Zuhlke has received funding by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement and the National Research Foundation of South Africa. Dr. Rigotti has served as a consultant to Achieve Life Sciences; and has received royalties from UpToDate, Inc. Dr. Rodgers is employed by The George Institute for Global Health (TGI) and seconded part time to George Medicines Pty Ltd (GM); TGI has submitted patent applications with respect to low-fixed-dose combination products for the treatment of cardiovascular or cardiometabolic disease and is listed as one of the inventors; George Health Enterprises Pty. Ltd. (GHE) and its subsidiary, GM, have received investment funds to develop fixed-dose combination products, including combinations of blood pressure-lowering drugs; GHE is the social enterprise arm of TGI (Dr. Rodgers does not have a direct financial interest in these patent applications or investments). Dr. Sundström holds ownership in companies providing services to Itrim, Amgen, Janssen, Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca, outside the submitted work. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • global health
  • health policy
  • population health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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