Glance behaviours when using an in-vehicle smart driving aid: A real-world, on-road driving study

S.A. Birrell, M. Fowkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) are commonplace in modern vehicles, from the initial satellite navigation and in-car infotainment systems, to the more recent driving related Smartphone applications. Investigating how drivers interact with such systems when driving is key to understanding what factors need to be considered in order to minimise distraction and workload issues while maintaining the benefits they provide. This study investigates the glance behaviours of drivers, assessed from video data, when using a smart driving Smartphone application (providing both eco-driving and safety feedback in real-time) in an on-road study over an extended period of time. Findings presented in this paper show that using the in-vehicle smart driving aid during real-world driving resulted in the drivers spending an average of 4.3% of their time looking at the system, at an average of 0.43 s per glance, with no glances of greater than 2 s, and accounting for 11.3% of the total glances made. This allocation of visual resource could be considered to be taken from ‘spare’ glances, defined by this study as to the road, but off-centre. Importantly glances to the mirrors, driving equipment and to the centre of the road did not reduce with the introduction of the IVIS in comparison to a control condition. In conclusion an ergonomically designed in-vehicle smart driving system providing feedback to the driver via an integrated and adaptive interface does not lead to visual distraction, with the task being integrated into normal driving.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-125
Number of pages13
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Early online date8 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


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