Fully automated driving: Impact of trust and practice on manual control recovery

William Payre, Julien Cestac, Patricia Delhomme

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    145 Citations (Scopus)


    An experiment was performed in a driving simulator to investigate the impacts of practice, trust, and interaction on manual control recovery (MCR) when employing fully automated driving (FAD).

    To increase the use of partially or highly automated driving efficiency and to improve safety, some studies have addressed trust in driving automation and training, but few studies have focused on FAD. FAD is an autonomous system that has full control of a vehicle without any need for intervention by the driver.

    A total of 69 drivers with a valid license practiced with FAD. They were distributed evenly across two conditions: simple practice and elaborate practice.

    When examining emergency MCR, a correlation was found between trust and reaction time in the simple practice group (i.e., higher trust meant a longer reaction time), but not in the elaborate practice group. This result indicated that to mitigate the negative impact of overtrust on reaction time, more appropriate practice may be needed.

    Drivers should be trained in how the automated device works so as to improve MCR performance in case of an emergency.

    The practice format used in this study could be used for the first interaction with an FAD car when acquiring such a vehicle.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)229-241
    Number of pages13
    JournalHuman Factors
    Issue number2
    Early online date8 Dec 2015
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016


    • Fully automated driving
    • Manual control recovery
    • Practice
    • Trust


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