Forward to the Past? Loyalist Paramilitarism in Northern Ireland Since 1994

Rachel Monaghan, Peter Shirlow

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11 Citations (Scopus)
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This article considers in detail loyalist paramilitary activity in Northern Ireland since the paramilitary ceasefires of 1994. The continuing nature of contemporary loyalist violence is documented with reference to sectarian attacks against members of the ‘Other’/Catholic community and associated symbols of that community, violence directed at other loyalists and the potential for future violence given constitutional uncertainty regarding Northern Ireland’s position within the United Kingdom. The article also challenges assumptions within the broader literature of an inability within loyalist paramilitary groups to move beyond violence in the post-ceasefire period with particular reference to their conflict transformation efforts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-665
Number of pages17
JournalStudies in Conflict and Terrorism
Issue number8
Early online date21 Jul 2011
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Northern Ireland
  • political violence
  • conflict transformation
  • loyalist paramilitaries


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