Footwear bending stiffness measurement methods: a review

Saba Eshraghi, Mahshid Yazdi Far

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Footwear stiffness affects kinematics and kinetic of the foot. This research is focused on footwear bending stiffness measurement methods that affect athletes’ performance. The influence of shoe bending stiffness on different movements; sprinting, running, jumping, etc was explained. Two different measurement methods; mechanical tests such as two and three-point bending machines and kinematic measurement methods using motion capture cameras were studied, and their limitations and effects on a variety of performances were presented. In mechanical tests, the most common method was the three-point bend test in which the footwear was analysed while carbon-fibre plates were added to increase the footwear stiffness. In kinematic measurements, attaching markers on the foot-shoe was analysed and the results presented discrepancies among studies. It was challenging to draw strong conclusions in choosing the best approach to measuring footwear stiffness as the methods’ protocols varied among studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalFootwear Science
Issue number1
Early online date18 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2024


  • apparatus
  • bending stiffness
  • footwear stiffness
  • kinematic analysis
  • measuring stiffness
  • motion capture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Biophysics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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