Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys

Hanna A. Dabkowska, Antoni B. Dabkowski, Regina Hermann, Janis Priede, Gunter Gerbeth

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Single crystals of congruently and incongruently melting oxides have been grown by the optical floating zone (OFZ) and traveling solvent floating zone techniques. Both relatively low-cost methods work especially well for oxides melting above the maximum operating temperature of conventional crucibles or that were previously impossible to grow due to crucible oxidation or reaction of the melt with the crucible material. For incongruently melting oxides, solvents with experimentally determined composition allow for creation of practical steady state conditions. This extends the range of materials that now can be crystallized in oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres and elevated pressure. Distribution of dopants is relatively uniform.The important problems of zone stabilization and its dependence on the conditions applied are discussed from the experimental point of view. Basic characterization of the grown crystals and most characteristic defects is presented. An extensive list of oxide crystals grown by the OFZ method is included.Floating zone crystal growth with radio frequency (RF) heating is an important technique for the preparation of single bulk crystals. The absence of any crucible is advantageous for the growth of single crystals of reactive materials with high melting points. The melt convection driven by the induction heating and the heat radiation from the surface leads usually to a solid-liquid interface being concave toward the solid phase outer rim. These concave parts inhibit the growth of single crystals over the whole cross-section. The concave solid-liquid interface can be prevented by a two-phase inductor that melts the material but also stirs it in a certain way. The basic design of this two-phase inductor is given, and its application for the growth of industrially relevant single crystals of RuAl and TiAl intermetallic compounds as well as interesting compounds for research such as antiferromagnetic Heusler MnSi compounds or biocompatible TiNb alloys is described.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationHandbook of Crystal Growth
    Subtitle of host publicationBulk Crystal Growth: Part A
    EditorsPeter Rudolph
    PublisherElsevier
    Pages281-329
    Number of pages49
    Volume2
    Edition2
    ISBN (Electronic)978-0-444-63306-4
    ISBN (Print)978-0-444-63303-3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2014

    Fingerprint

    crucibles
    floating
    oxides
    single crystals
    melting
    inductors
    liquid-solid interfaces
    radio frequency heating
    crystals
    neutral atmospheres
    induction heating
    atmospheres
    rims
    operating temperature
    lists
    melting points
    intermetallics
    solid phases
    crystal growth
    convection

    Keywords

    • Crystal growth
    • Image furnace
    • Intermetallic compounds
    • Optical floating zone
    • Oxides
    • RF-floating zone
    • Single crystals
    • Travelling solvent floating zone

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Physics and Astronomy(all)

    Cite this

    Dabkowska, H. A., Dabkowski, A. B., Hermann, R., Priede, J., & Gerbeth, G. (2014). Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys. In P. Rudolph (Ed.), Handbook of Crystal Growth: Bulk Crystal Growth: Part A (2 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 281-329). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63303-3.00008-0

    Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys. / Dabkowska, Hanna A.; Dabkowski, Antoni B.; Hermann, Regina; Priede, Janis; Gerbeth, Gunter.

    Handbook of Crystal Growth: Bulk Crystal Growth: Part A. ed. / Peter Rudolph. Vol. 2 2. ed. Elsevier, 2014. p. 281-329.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    Dabkowska, HA, Dabkowski, AB, Hermann, R, Priede, J & Gerbeth, G 2014, Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys. in P Rudolph (ed.), Handbook of Crystal Growth: Bulk Crystal Growth: Part A. 2 edn, vol. 2, Elsevier, pp. 281-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63303-3.00008-0
    Dabkowska HA, Dabkowski AB, Hermann R, Priede J, Gerbeth G. Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys. In Rudolph P, editor, Handbook of Crystal Growth: Bulk Crystal Growth: Part A. 2 ed. Vol. 2. Elsevier. 2014. p. 281-329 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63303-3.00008-0
    Dabkowska, Hanna A. ; Dabkowski, Antoni B. ; Hermann, Regina ; Priede, Janis ; Gerbeth, Gunter. / Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys. Handbook of Crystal Growth: Bulk Crystal Growth: Part A. editor / Peter Rudolph. Vol. 2 2. ed. Elsevier, 2014. pp. 281-329
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    T1 - Floating Zone Growth of Oxides and Metallic Alloys

    AU - Dabkowska, Hanna A.

    AU - Dabkowski, Antoni B.

    AU - Hermann, Regina

    AU - Priede, Janis

    AU - Gerbeth, Gunter

    PY - 2014/12/17

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    N2 - Single crystals of congruently and incongruently melting oxides have been grown by the optical floating zone (OFZ) and traveling solvent floating zone techniques. Both relatively low-cost methods work especially well for oxides melting above the maximum operating temperature of conventional crucibles or that were previously impossible to grow due to crucible oxidation or reaction of the melt with the crucible material. For incongruently melting oxides, solvents with experimentally determined composition allow for creation of practical steady state conditions. This extends the range of materials that now can be crystallized in oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres and elevated pressure. Distribution of dopants is relatively uniform.The important problems of zone stabilization and its dependence on the conditions applied are discussed from the experimental point of view. Basic characterization of the grown crystals and most characteristic defects is presented. An extensive list of oxide crystals grown by the OFZ method is included.Floating zone crystal growth with radio frequency (RF) heating is an important technique for the preparation of single bulk crystals. The absence of any crucible is advantageous for the growth of single crystals of reactive materials with high melting points. The melt convection driven by the induction heating and the heat radiation from the surface leads usually to a solid-liquid interface being concave toward the solid phase outer rim. These concave parts inhibit the growth of single crystals over the whole cross-section. The concave solid-liquid interface can be prevented by a two-phase inductor that melts the material but also stirs it in a certain way. The basic design of this two-phase inductor is given, and its application for the growth of industrially relevant single crystals of RuAl and TiAl intermetallic compounds as well as interesting compounds for research such as antiferromagnetic Heusler MnSi compounds or biocompatible TiNb alloys is described.

    AB - Single crystals of congruently and incongruently melting oxides have been grown by the optical floating zone (OFZ) and traveling solvent floating zone techniques. Both relatively low-cost methods work especially well for oxides melting above the maximum operating temperature of conventional crucibles or that were previously impossible to grow due to crucible oxidation or reaction of the melt with the crucible material. For incongruently melting oxides, solvents with experimentally determined composition allow for creation of practical steady state conditions. This extends the range of materials that now can be crystallized in oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres and elevated pressure. Distribution of dopants is relatively uniform.The important problems of zone stabilization and its dependence on the conditions applied are discussed from the experimental point of view. Basic characterization of the grown crystals and most characteristic defects is presented. An extensive list of oxide crystals grown by the OFZ method is included.Floating zone crystal growth with radio frequency (RF) heating is an important technique for the preparation of single bulk crystals. The absence of any crucible is advantageous for the growth of single crystals of reactive materials with high melting points. The melt convection driven by the induction heating and the heat radiation from the surface leads usually to a solid-liquid interface being concave toward the solid phase outer rim. These concave parts inhibit the growth of single crystals over the whole cross-section. The concave solid-liquid interface can be prevented by a two-phase inductor that melts the material but also stirs it in a certain way. The basic design of this two-phase inductor is given, and its application for the growth of industrially relevant single crystals of RuAl and TiAl intermetallic compounds as well as interesting compounds for research such as antiferromagnetic Heusler MnSi compounds or biocompatible TiNb alloys is described.

    KW - Crystal growth

    KW - Image furnace

    KW - Intermetallic compounds

    KW - Optical floating zone

    KW - Oxides

    KW - RF-floating zone

    KW - Single crystals

    KW - Travelling solvent floating zone

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    DO - 10.1016/B978-0-444-63303-3.00008-0

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    SN - 978-0-444-63303-3

    VL - 2

    SP - 281

    EP - 329

    BT - Handbook of Crystal Growth

    A2 - Rudolph, Peter

    PB - Elsevier

    ER -