Financial openness, risk and bank efficiency: Cross-country evidence

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This paper assesses the interrelationship between financial openness, bank risk and bank profit efficiency using a cross-country sample of 2,007 commercial banks covering 140 countries over the period 1999-2011. To establish whether the impact of financial openness on both bank risk and profit efficiency occurs directly or through each one of the two bank characteristics (efficiency and risk, respectively), we begin our analysis by investigating the potential reverse Granger causality between profit efficiency and risk using a dynamic simultaneous model via system GMM estimation. We then account explicitly for the role of bank risk in the estimation of bank profit efficiency using stochastic frontier analysis, allowing for the influence of different measures of financial openness and risk alongside other control variables. Our results indicate that financial openness reduces bank profit efficiency directly, not through changes in bank risk. We also find that financial openness increases bank risk indirectly, through the decreased bank profit efficiency channel.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Financial Stability. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Financial Stability, [24 (2016)] DOI: 10.1016/j.jfs.2016.05.003

© 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-148
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Financial Stability
Early online date19 May 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016

Bibliographical note

Due to publisher policy, the full text is not available on the repository until the 19th of November 2017.


  • Financial openness
  • Risk
  • Bank efficiency
  • Stochastic Frontier Analysis
  • Granger causality


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