Financial inclusion, corporate social responsibility and firm performance – analysis of interactive relationship

Asit Bhattacharyya, Mahbub Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
373 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purpose: Prior studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and performance have frequently used unidirectional, single-equation regression although the literature recommends the reciprocal association of CSR with firm performance. This paper aims to elucidate the interactive relationship of CSR spending with financial inclusion (FI) and firm performance. The study also explores the moderating impact of the level of FI on the CSR-firm performance relationship. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a simultaneous equations model to capture the FI, CSR and firm performance relationships and apply a three-stage regression approach and generalised method of moments approach to address possible endogeneity. Findings: The results confirm a positive association of CSR spending with performance but a negative relationship of FI with performance. This paper also finds that FI negatively moderates the CSR spending-performance relationship. Practical implications: The positive impact of CSR spending and the negative impact of FI on performance in mandatory CSR regimes provides valuable input in policy formulation. The results of the study will also be useful to national and international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Originality/value: This study uses a simultaneous equations model to capture the reciprocal association of CSR spending with firm performance, whereas prior studies on CSR and performance have frequently used unidirectional, single-equation regression. This paper also finds that FI negatively moderates the CSR spending- performance relationship. Including FI and exploring the moderating impact of the level of FI on the CSR-firm performance relationship is novel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-440
Number of pages24
JournalMeditari Accountancy Research
Volume31
Issue number2
Early online date30 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

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Keywords

  • Corporate governance
  • Corporate social responsibility
  • CSR expenditure
  • Financial inclusion
  • Financial management
  • Firm performance
  • Quantitative research
  • Simultaneous equation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Accounting

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