Field validation of The Heat Strain Decision Aid during military load carriage

Kirsty A.M. Waldock, Ben J. Lee, Steven Powell, Sophie L. Wardle, Sam D. Blacker, Stephen D. Myers, Tessa D. Maroni, Faye S. Walker, David P. Looney, Julie P. Greeves, Adam W. Potter

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives: We aimed to determine the agreement between actual and predicted core body temperature, using the Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA), in non-Ground Close Combat (GCC) personnel wearing multi terrain pattern clothing during two stages of load carriage in temperate conditions. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Sixty participants (men = 49, women = 11, age 31 ± 8 years; height 171.1 ± 9.0 cm; body mass 78.1 ± 11.5 kg) completed two stages of load carriage, of increasing metabolic rate, as part of the development of new British Army physical employment standards (PES). An ingestible gastrointestinal sensor was used to measure core temperature. Testing was completed in wet bulb globe temperature conditions; 1.2–12.6 °C. Predictive accuracy and precision were analysed using individual and group mean inputs. Assessments were evaluated by bias, limits of agreement (LoA), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE). Accuracy was evaluated using a prediction bias of ±0.27 °C and by comparing predictions to the standard deviation of the actual core temperature. Results: Modelling individual predictions provided an acceptable level of accuracy based on bias criterion; where the total of all trials bias ± LoA was 0.08 ± 0.82 °C. Predicted values were in close agreement with the actual data: MAE 0.37 °C and RMSE 0.46 °C for the collective data. Modelling using group mean inputs were less accurate than using individual inputs, but within the mean observed. Conclusion: The HSDA acceptably predicts core temperature during load carriage to the new British Army non-GCC PES, in temperate conditions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104506
    JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
    Early online date20 May 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


    The work was funded by UK Ministry of Defence ; KW, SW and JG are employed by the UK Ministry of Defence as Government scientists. The views expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.


    • Core body temperature
    • Heat stress
    • HSDA
    • Modelling
    • Safety
    • Thermoregulation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Computer Science Applications
    • Health Informatics


    Dive into the research topics of 'Field validation of The Heat Strain Decision Aid during military load carriage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this