Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position

S M Heffernan, G K Stebbings, L P Kilduff, R M Erskine, S H Day, C I Morse, J S McPhee, C J Cook, B Vance, W J Ribbans, S M Raleigh, C Roberts, M A Bennett, G Wang, M Collins, Y P Pitsiladis, A G Williams

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes.

METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump.

RESULTS: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6).

CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalPLoS Genetics
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes

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obesity
Football
athletes
Athletes
fat
skeletal muscle
phenotype
allele
Skeletal Muscle
muscle
Obesity
Fats
Phenotype
genotype
gene
lipids
body mass
Genes
Alleles
genes

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO
  • Athletes
  • Football
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Resistance Training
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

Heffernan, S. M., Stebbings, G. K., Kilduff, L. P., Erskine, R. M., Day, S. H., Morse, C. I., ... Williams, A. G. (2017). Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. PLoS Genetics, 18(1), [4]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1

Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. / Heffernan, S M; Stebbings, G K; Kilduff, L P; Erskine, R M; Day, S H; Morse, C I; McPhee, J S; Cook, C J; Vance, B; Ribbans, W J; Raleigh, S M; Roberts, C; Bennett, M A; Wang, G; Collins, M; Pitsiladis, Y P; Williams, A G.

In: PLoS Genetics, Vol. 18, No. 1, 4, 19.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heffernan, SM, Stebbings, GK, Kilduff, LP, Erskine, RM, Day, SH, Morse, CI, McPhee, JS, Cook, CJ, Vance, B, Ribbans, WJ, Raleigh, SM, Roberts, C, Bennett, MA, Wang, G, Collins, M, Pitsiladis, YP & Williams, AG 2017, 'Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position' PLoS Genetics, vol. 18, no. 1, 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1
Heffernan, S M ; Stebbings, G K ; Kilduff, L P ; Erskine, R M ; Day, S H ; Morse, C I ; McPhee, J S ; Cook, C J ; Vance, B ; Ribbans, W J ; Raleigh, S M ; Roberts, C ; Bennett, M A ; Wang, G ; Collins, M ; Pitsiladis, Y P ; Williams, A G. / Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. In: PLoS Genetics. 2017 ; Vol. 18, No. 1.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes.METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump.RESULTS: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8{\%} and 4.1{\%}) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0{\%} and 2.1{\%}) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8{\%}) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1{\%}) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94{\%}) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82{\%}; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84{\%}; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14{\%}; P = 2 x 10-6).CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.",
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AU - Erskine, R M

AU - Day, S H

AU - Morse, C I

AU - McPhee, J S

AU - Cook, C J

AU - Vance, B

AU - Ribbans, W J

AU - Raleigh, S M

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N2 - BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes.METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump.RESULTS: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6).CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

AB - BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes.METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump.RESULTS: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6).CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

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KW - Athletes

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KW - Genetic Predisposition to Disease

KW - Genotype

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Muscle, Skeletal

KW - Phenotype

KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

KW - Resistance Training

KW - Young Adult

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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