Exploring the relationship of static and dynamic balance with muscle mechanical properties of the lower limbs in healthy young adults

Mathew W. Hill, Maximilian M. Wdowski, Katarzyna Rosicka, Anthony D. Kay, Thomas Muehlbauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


There is emerging evidence that mechanical properties of in vivo muscle tissues are associated with postural sway during quiet standing. However, it is unknown if the observed relationship between mechanical properties with static balance parameters generalise to dynamic balance. Thus, we determined the relationship between static and dynamic balance parameters with muscle mechanical properties of the ankle plantar flexors [lateral gastrocnemius (GL)] and knee extensors [vastus lateralis (VL)] in vivo. Twenty-six participants (men = 16, women = 10; age = 23.3 ± 4.4 years) were assessed for static balance [centre of pressure (COP) movements during quiet standing], dynamic balance (reach distances for the Y-balance test) and mechanical properties (stiffness and tone) of the GL and VL measured in the standing and lying position. Significant (p < .05) small to moderate inverse correlations were observed between the mean COP velocity during quiet standing with stiffness (r = −.40 to −.58, p = .002 to .042) and tone (r = −0.42 to −0.56, p = 0.003 to 0.036) of the GL and VL (lying and standing). Tone and stiffness explained 16%–33% of the variance in the mean COP velocity. Stiffness and tone of the VL measured in the lying (supine) condition were also inversely significantly correlated with Y balance test performance (r = −0.39 to −0.46, p = 0.018 to 0.049). These findings highlight that individuals with low muscle stiffness and tone exhibit faster COP movements during quiet standing, indicative of reduced postural control but also reveal that low VL stiffness and tone are associated with greater reach distances in a lower extremity reaching task, indicative of greater neuromuscular performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1168314
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Early online date26 May 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 May 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 Hill, Wdowski, Rosicka, Kay and Muehlbauer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms


We acknowledge support by the Open Access Publication Fund of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The funding body is independent of the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.


  • biomechanical properties
  • viscoelasticity
  • muscle stiffness
  • myotonometry
  • postural control
  • centre of pressure displacement
  • distance reaching


Dive into the research topics of 'Exploring the relationship of static and dynamic balance with muscle mechanical properties of the lower limbs in healthy young adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this