Exploring the dual-foundation model: evidence from British and Czech children

Anna Cunningham, Marketa Caravolas, Gabriela Siedlova Malkova, Laura R. Shapiro, Anne Castles

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterpeer-review


    The dual foundation model presents that theory that letter-sound knowledge (LK) and phoneme awareness (PA) uniquely and interactively predict early reading/ spelling skills. Data from two large-scale sample of children aged four and a half years in Britain and the Czech Republic found that LK was strong and PA weak in the British sample, while the opposite pattern was found in the Czech children. LK and the interaction between LK and PA predicted reading in British children, while only LK predicted reading in Czech children. Results suggest that only when both PA and LK are sufficiently developed do they effectively form the foundation of reading.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2018


    • Phonological awareness
    • reading acquisition
    • Letter knowledge


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