Exploring the critical success factors influencing BIM level 2 implementation in the UK construction industry: the case of SMEs

Khaled Walid Abu Awwad, Abdussalam Shibani, Michel Ghostin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
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The implementation of BIM Level 2 in the United Kingdom (UK) construction sector has increased significantly in the last decade, particularly after the UK government mandated the use of BIM in all public projects by 2016. Despite this, there are many indicators that BIM implementation is a main concern for large companies, while Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are lagging behind in adopting and implementing this new technology. This slow adoption, has led to a competitive disadvantage for SMEs in public projects and possibly private projects, which is exacerbated by the limited research focusing on the implementation of BIM Level 2 within SMEs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to bridge this gap and explore the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) influencing BIM Level 2 implementation in SMEs, as well as identifying their importance throughout the implementation process. To achieve this aim, a qualitative research approach was adopted involving 25 semi-structured interviews with BIM experts in three SMEs in the UK. The study concluded by identifying 15 factors, which includes 3 new factors and 12 factors previously mentioned in the literature. All 15 factors were then given an importance level based on how influential they were during the implementation process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1894-1901
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Construction Management
Issue number10
Early online date31 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Construction Management on 31/03/2020, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/15623599.2020.1744213

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • Building information modelling (BIM)
  • United Kingdom (UK)
  • critical success factors (CSFs)
  • small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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