Experiments on a light duty SCR test exhaust system using ammonia gas to provide data for validation of a CFD model

Stephen F. Benjamin, M. Gall, M.P. Sturgess, Carol A. Roberts

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    Modelling of reactions in SCR catalysts is a challenging process, but kinetic schemes are available in the literature derived from reactor tests with specific catalysts. This paper reports experiments on a light duty common rail diesel engine and test exhaust fitted with copper zeolite SCR. The experiments aimed to provide data for CFD model validation. Four different lengths of SCR catalyst brick were investigated: 30, 45, 75 and 91 mm. The tests were undertaken for NO2:NOx ratios of 0.05, 0.46, 0.62 and 0.82 approximately. Three ammonia dosing levels were investigated. These were deficient ammonia, i.e. NH3:NOx ratio about 0.5, stoichiometric, where the ratio was near 1.0 and excess ammonia, ratio greater than 1.0. A 1D steady state CFD model using the porous medium approach was developed based on available kinetics. Most of the experiments were at low exhaust temperature around 220 °C but a case near 300 °C was also investigated. Comparison of CFD predictions with measurements showed that the kinetic scheme gave moderate predictions with a stoichiometric ammonia supply to the exhaust and an NO2:NOx ratio near 50 % but that the model was inadequate for other conditions. There was notably more NOx consumption than predicted for short bricks and for deficient ammonia levels. The data were obtained in a real engine exhaust at much higher space velocities than those used to derive the kinetics; this study is therefore a strong test of the kinetic model. Attempts to modify the CFD model to provide closer agreement with experimental observations are ongoing.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationInternal Combustion Engines: Improving Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions
    Place of PublicationCambridge
    PublisherWoodhead Publishing
    ISBN (Print)9780857095060, 9780857092052
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Bibliographical note

    Paper presented at the IMechE Conference Internal Combustion Engines:Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions: 29-30 November 2011, London UK.


    • selective catalytic reduction
    • rail diesel engine
    • copper zeolite


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