Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ag Addition on Ternary Lead Free Solder Alloy –Sn–0.5Cu–3Bi

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Abstract: Lead cannot be used in the solder material anymore due to environmental legislations which is related to the inherent toxicity of lead. This paper investigates the effect of silver (Ag) addition on the melting behavior, microstructure, and microhardness of Ternary lead free solder alloy Sn–0.5Cu–3Bi. The contact angle between Sn–0.5Cu–3Bi and Cu-substrate were also analyzed. Samples with different Ag percentages (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%) in Sn–0.5Cu–3Bi were prepared using an induction furnace, annealing furnace with argon gas. Tests were conducted for melting temperature using TG–DTA analysis, chemical composition using ICP–OES, Hardness using Vickers’s hardness tester and the microstructure using Field emission scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results were thoroughly analyzed. The results show that the Ag addition has striking positive effects on enhancing the properties of the base solder alloy. Melting point is found to be decreasing with the increase in Ag content. Hardness and contact angle were improved with the addition of Ag. The microstructure observations revealed that the Ag was uniformly distributed on the surface of the solder matrix. The recommended content of the Ag to be added into the Sn–0.5Cu–3Bi solder alloy is 1.0 wt%. With the observed better properties it can be considered as the potential alternative to lead–tin alloy. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-114
Number of pages8
JournalMetals and Materials International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Lead free
  • Wettability
  • Microstructure
  • Solder alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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