Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of water vapour corrosion of Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC ceramics and their mechanical behaviour

Karthikeyan Ramachandran, Zuccarini Carmine, Katsumi Yoshida, Toru Tsunoura, Doni Daniel Jayaseelan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Commercially available Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC ceramics were used in this study to investigate their wet corrosion and mechanical behaviour as they were under investigation for years for their applications in the field of nuclear as cladding materials and aerospace. The test coupons of dimension 3 × 4 × 40 mm3 and 3 × 4 × 20 mm3 were machined out from commercially available samples for the 3-pt bend test and wet corrosion test, respectively. The water vapour corrosion studies of these samples were carried out at 800 ℃, 1000 ℃, 1200 ℃ for 10, 20 and 100 h in gas flow condition containing 50 % steam + 50 % air. Phase analysis of the as-received Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC ceramics revealed the presence of other impurity phases such as TiC and TiSi2. The XRD patterns of the oxidised samples show the formation of rutile as the major phase in both materials. The oxidation layer formed on Ti3SiC2 sample was measured to be 280 μm after exposing the sample in steam for 100 h at 1200 °C. The water vapour corrosion studies reveal that Ti2AlC has high oxidation resistance compared with the Ti3SiC2 due to the formation of protective layers of TiO2 and Al2O3 which resulted in reduced weight gain and oxidation layer thickness. Three-point bend tests were conducted at room temperature for the samples after the water vapour corrosion test at 1000 °C/100 h. The TAC samples showed no degradation in the bending strength (244 MPa) whereas the TSC samples showed reduced strength of 320 MPa. The tensile strength of the samples was measured at room temperature and hydrothermal condition (250 °C and 250 bars pressure) and it was observed that Ti3SiC2 had high tensile strength (190 MPa) in hydrothermal conditions. The tensile strength results were validated using Finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS and the FEA results showed a negligible variance of 7 % compared with experimental method. Mathematical modelling based on one dimensional solution of diffusion equation combined with Deal-Grove model was employed to study and compare the oxidation thickness for the linear and parabolic models for the ceramics. The model was effective in validating the oxidation thickness of Ti3SiC2 showing that the experimental thickness was closer to that of mathematical model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4761-4773
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number9
Early online date24 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • EPMA
  • FEA
  • Mathematical modelling
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • TiAlC
  • TiSiC
  • Water vapour corrosion
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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